Research Related to Schoolwide Enrichment Model

Author & Date
Title of Study
      Major Finding
Cooper, 1983
Administrator’s attitudes toward gifted programs based on the Enrichment Triad/Revolving Door Identification Model: Case studies in decision-making.
8 districts
  • Administrator perceptions regarding the model included: greater staff participation in education of high ability students, more positive staff attitudes toward the program, fewer concerns about identification, positive changes in how the guidance department worked with students, more incentives for students to work toward higher goals.
  • Administrators found SEM to have significant impact on all students.
Baum, 1985
Learning disabled students with superior cognitive abilities: A validation study of descriptive behaviors.
  • SEM recommended as one vehicle to meet the unique needs of gifted students with learning disabilities because of the emphasis on strengths, interests, and learning styles.
Karafelis, 1986
The effects of the tri-art drama curriculum on the reading comprehension of students with varying levels of cognitive ability.
E, M
  • Students receiving experimental treatment did equally well on achievement tests as the control group.
Schack, 1986
Creative productivity and self-efficacy in children.
E, M
  • Self-efficacy was a significant predictor of initiation of an independent investigation, and self-efficacy at the end of treatment was higher in students who participated in Type III projects.
Starko, 1986
The effects of The Revolving Door Identification Model on creative productivity and self-efficacy.
  • Students who became involved with self-selected independent studies in SEM programs initiated their own creative products both inside and outside school more often than students who qualified for the program but did not receive services.
  • Students in the enrichment group reported over twice as many creative projects per student (3.37) as the comparison group (.50) and showed greater diversity and sophistication in projects.
  • The number of creative products completed in school (Type IIIs) was a highly significant predictor of self-efficacy.
Burns, 1987
The effects of group training activities on students’ creative productivity.
  • Students receiving process skill training were 64% more likely to initiate self-selected projects (Type IIIs) than the students who did not receive the training.
Skaught, 1987
The social acceptability of talent pool students in an elementary school using The Schoolwide Enrichment Model.
  • Students identified as above average for a SEM program were positively accepted by their peers.
  • In schools where SEM had been implemented, a “condition of separateness” did not exist for students in the program.
Baum, 1988
An enrichment program for gifted learning disabled students.
  • The Type III independent study, when used as an intervention with high ability, learning disabled students, was associated with improvement in the students’ behavior, specifically the ability to self-regulate time on task; improvement in self-esteem; and the development of specific instructional strategies to enhance the potential of high potential, learning disabled students.
Delcourt, 1988
Characteristics related to high levels of creative/productive behavior in secondary school students: A multi-case study.
  • Students completing self-selected investigations (Type IIIs) displayed positive changes in the following: personal skills required for project completion (e.g., writing), personal characteristics (e.g., increased patience), and decisions related to career choices.
Emerick, 1988
Academic underachievement among the gifted: Students’ perceptions of factors relating to the reversal of academic underachievement patterns.
  • Reversal of academic underachievement through use of various components of SEM including: curriculum compacting, exposure to Type I experiences, opportunities to be involved in Type III studies, and an appropriate assessment of learning styles to provide a match between students and teachers.
Olenchak, 1988
The Schoolwide Enrichment Model in elementary schools: A study of implementation stages and effects on educational excellence.
P, E
n=236, teacher
n=1,698, student
  • SEM contributed to improved teachers’, parents’, and administrators’ attitudes toward education for high ability students.
Heal, 1989
Student perceptions of labeling the gifted: A comparative case study analysis.
  • SEM was associated with a reduction in the negative effects of labeling.
Olenchak, 1990
School change through gifted education: Effects on elementary students’ attitudes toward learning.
P, E
  • Positive changes in student attitudes toward learning as well as toward gifted education and school in general.
Imbeau, 1991
Teachers’ attitudes toward curriculum compacting with regard to the implementation of the procedure.
P, E, M, S
  • Group membership (peer coaching) was a significant predictor of posttest teachers’ attitudes.
Newman, 1991
The effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on students’ creative productivity.
  • Students with training in the Talents Unlimited Model were more likely to complete independent investigations (Type IIIs) than the students who did not receive the training.
Olenchak, 1991
Assessing program effects for gifted/learning disabled students.
P, E
  • Supported use of SEM as a means of meeting educational needs of a wide variety of high ability students.
  • SEM, when used as an intervention, was associated with improved attitudes toward learning among elementary, high ability students with learning disabilities. Furthermore, the same students, who completed a high percentage of Type III projects, made positive gains with respect to self-concept.
Taylor, 1992
The effects of The Secondary Enrichment Triad Model on the career development of vocational-technical school students.
  • Involvement in Type III studies substantially increased post-secondary education plans of students (from attending 2.6 years to attending 4.0 years)
Delcourt, 1993
Creative productivity among secondary school students: Combining energy, interest, and imagination.
  • Students who participated in Type III projects, both in and out of school, maintained interests in college and career aspirations that were similar to those manifested during their public school years as opposed to previous reports of little or no relation between personally initiated and assigned school projects.
  • Supports the concept that adolescents and young adults can be producers of information, as well as consumers.
Hébert, 1993
Reflections at graduation: The long-term impact of elementary school experiences in creative productivity.
  • Five major findings: Type III interests of students affect post-secondary plans; creative outlets are needed in high school; a decrease in creative Type III productivity occurs during the junior high experience; the Type III process serves as important training for later productivity; non-intellectual characteristics with students remain consistent.
Kettle, Renzulli, & Rizza, 1997
Products of mind: exploring student preferences for product development using My Way…an expression style instrument.
E, M
  • Students’ preferences for creating potential products were explored through the use of an expression style inventory. Factor analytic procedures yielded the following 11 factors: computer, service, dramatization, artistic, audio/visual, written, commercial, oral, manipulative, musical, and vocal.
Reis, Westberg, Kulikowich, & Purcell, 1998
Curriculum compacting and achievement test scores: What does the research say?
K, E, M
  • Using curriculum compacting to eliminate between 40%-50% of curricula for students with demonstrated advanced content knowledge and superior ability resulted in no decline in achievement test scores.
Milne, 2001
A comparative case study of the persons with Williams Syndrome and musical interests.
  • Elements of the SEM that were explicitly applied during the 10 day program proved beneficial to the identification and development of interests, resulting in gains of music skills for the participants. The findings indicate that it may be beneficial to use SEM with similar programs for people with Williams Syndrome. The TTP (Total Talent Portfolio) may be particularly useful in identifying style and interests preferences for this population.
Warwick, 2001
Providing for under-achieving students using Renzulli’s type II enrichment activities: gifted and talented video projects at Holland Park comprehensive school.
  • A London school district set up opportunities for students to pursue Renzulli’s Type III enrichment activities based on the Triad/RDIM programs. The idea was to have students produce a video focusing on a particular field of excellence that promoted the specific talent of the students involved (such as Life Drawing, The Environmental Project, and The Music Project). As a result of participating in the projects, students were seen as more independent learners and researchers. Also, many of the students developed a strong understanding of the connection between their projects and school learning.

*P=Primary grades, K-2; E=Elementary grades, 3-5; M=Middle grades, 6-8; S=Secondary grades, 9-12.