Taxonomy of Type II Process Skills

Deborah E. Burns, 1994

  1. COGNITIVE TRAINING
    1. Analysis Skills
      Identifying characteristics
      Recognizing attributes
      Making an observation
      Discriminating between same and different
      Comparing and contrasting
      Categorizing
      Classifying
      Criteria setting
      Ranking, prioritizing, and sequencing
      Seeing relationships
      Determining cause and effect
      Pattern finding
      Predicting
      Making analogies
    2. Organization Skills
      Memorizing
      Summarizing
      Metacognition
      Goal setting
      Formulating questions
      Developing hypotheses
      Generalizing
      Problem solving
      Decision making
      Planning
    3. Critical Thinking Skills
      Inductive thinking
      Deductive thinking
      Determining reality and fantasy
      Determining benefits and drawbacks
      Identifying value statements
      Identifying points of view
      Determining bias
      Identifying fact and opinion
      Determining the accuracy of presented information
      Judging essential and incidental evidence
      Determining relevance
      Identifying missing information
      Judging the credibility of a source
      Determining warranted and unwarranted claims
      Recognizing assumptions
      Recognizing fallacies
      Detecting inconsistencies in an argument
      Identifying ambiguity
      Identifying exaggeration
      Determining the strength of an argument
    4. Creativity Skills
      Fluent thinking
      Flexible thinking
      Original thinking
      Elaborational thinking
      Developing imagery
      SCAMPER modification techniques
      Attribute Listing
      Random Input
      Brainstorming
      Creative problem solving
      Synectics
  2. AFFECTIVE TRAINING
    1. Intrapersonal Skills
      Analyzing strengths
      Clarifying values
      Developing a personal framework for activism
      Developing a sense of humor
      Developing an ethical framework
      Developing moral reasoning
      Developing resiliency
      Developing responsibility
      Developing self-efficacy
      Developing self-esteem
      Developing self-reliance
      Developing task commitment
      Understanding integrity
      Understanding self-management
      Understanding image management
      Understanding learning styles
    2. Interpersonal Skills
      Developing environmental awareness
      Developing etiquette and courtesy
      Developing multicultural awareness
      Developing social skills
      Understanding assertiveness
      Understanding and developing leadership skills
      Understanding conflict resolution
      Understanding cooperation and collaboration
      Understanding nonverbal communication
      Understanding stereotypes
      Understanding tolerance, empathy, and compassion
    3. Dealing With Critical Life Incidents
      Coping with loss
      Dealing with change
      Dealing with dependency
      Dealing with failure
      Dealing with stress
      Dealing with success
      Making choices
      Planning for the future
      Understanding perfectionism
      Understanding risk-taking
  3. LEARNING HOW-TO-LEARN SKILLS
    1. Listening, Observing, and Perceiving Skills
      Following directions
      Noting specific details
      Understanding main points, themes, and sequences
      Separating relevant from irrelevant information
      Paying attention to whole-part relationships
      Scanning for the “big picture”
      Focusing on specifics
      Asking for clarification
      Asking appropriate questions
      Making inferences
      Noting subtleties
      Predicting outcomes
      Evaluating a speaker’s point of view
    2. Notetaking and Outlining Skills
      Notetaking Skills
      Selecting key terms, concepts, and ideas
      Disregarding unimportant information
      Noting what needs to be remembered
      Recording words, dates and figures to aid in recall
      Reviewing notes and highlighting the most important items
      Categorizing notes in a logical order
      Organizing notes so that information from various sources can be added later
      Outlining and webbing
      Using outlining skills to write material that has unity and coherence
      Selecting and using a system of notation (e.g., Roman numerals)
      Deciding whether to write topic outlines or sentence outlines
      Stating each topic or point clearly
      Developing each topic sufficiently
    3. Interviewing and Surveying—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
      Identifying information being sought
      Deciding on appropriate instruments
      Identifying sources of existing instruments
      Designing instruments (e.g., check-lists, rating scales, interview schedules)
      Developing question wording skills (e.g., factual, attitudinal, probing, follow-up)
      Sequencing questions
      Identifying representative samples
      Field testing and revising instruments
      Developing rapport with subjects
      Preparing a data-gathering matrix and schedule
      Using follow-up techniques
    4. Analyzing and Organizing Data—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
      Identifying types and sources of data
      Identifying and developing data gathering instruments and techniques
      Identifying appropriate sampling techniques
      Developing data-recording and coding techniques
      Classifying and tabulating data
      Preparing descriptive (statistical) summaries of data (e.g., percentages, means, modes, etc.)
      Analyzing data with inferential statistics
      Preparing tables, graphs, and diagrams
      Drawing conclusions and making generalizations
      Writing up and reporting result
    5. USING ADVANCED RESEARCH AND REFERENCE MATERIALS
      1. Preparing for Type III Investigations:
        Developing problem finding and focusing skills
        Identifying variables
        Stating hypotheses and research questions
        Identifying human and material resources
        Developing a management plan
        Developing time management skills
        Selecting appropriate product formats
        Obtaining feedback and making revisions
        Identifying appropriate outlets and audiences
        Developing an assessment plan
      2. Library Skills:
        Understanding library organizational systems
        Using information retrieval systems
        Using interlibrary loan procedures
        Understanding specialized types of information in reference books, such as:
        abstracts
        almanacs
        annuals
        anthologies
        atlases
        bibliographies
        books of quotations, proverbs, maxims, and familiar phrases
        concordances
        data tables
        diaries
        dictionaries and glossaries
        digests
        directories and registers
        encyclopedias
        handbooks
        histories and chronicles of particular fields, organizations
        indexes
        manuals
        periodicals
        reader’s guides
        reviews
        source books
        surveys
        yearbooks
        Understanding the specific types of information in nonbook reference materials, such as:
        art prints
        audio tapes
        charts
        data tapes
        CD Roms
        film loops
        films
        filmstrips
        filmstrips with sound
        flashcards
        globes
        maps
        microforms
        models
        pictures
        realia
        records
        slides
        study prints
        talking books
        transparencies
        video tapes, discs
      3. Community Resources:
        Identifying community resources, such as:
        art and theater groups
        clubs, hobby, and special interest groups
        college and university services and persons
        governmental and social service agencies
        museums, galleries, science centers, places of special interest or function
        private and community colleges
        private business and individuals
        private individuals
        professional societies and associations
        senior citizen groups
        service clubs
        universities
    6. DEVELOPING WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
      1. Visual Communication—Developing Skills in the Preparation of:
        Audio tape recordings
        Filmstrips
        Motion pictures
        Multimedia images
        Overhead transparencies
        Photographic print series
        Slide series
        Video tape recordings
      2. Oral Communication—Developing and Practicing the Use of:
        Organizing material for an oral presentation
        Vocal delivery
        Appropriate gestures, eye movement, facial expression, and body movement
        Acceptance of the ideas and feelings of others
        Appropriate words, quotations, anecdotes, personal experiences, illustrative examples, and relevant information
        Appropriate use of the latest technology
        Obtaining and evaluating feedback
      3. Written Communication:
        Planning the written document (e.g., subject, audience, purpose, thesis, tone, outline, title)
        Choosing appropriate and imaginative words
        Developing paragraphs with unity, coherence, and emphasis
        Developing “technique” (e.g., metaphor, comparison, hyperbole, personal experience)
        Writing powerful introductions and conclusions
        Practicing the four basic forms of writing (exposition, persuasion, description, and narration)
        Applying the basic forms to a variety of genre (i.e., short stories, book reviews, research papers, etc.)
        Developing technical skills (e.g., proofreading, editing, revising, footnoting, preparing bibliographies, writing summaries, and abstracts)