Grouping: A Short, Data Based Primary Journal Research Sources Bibliography

Joseph S. Renzulli, Director
October 1997

The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented
University of Connecticut, Storrs

This bibliography was developed from an analysis of reference lists contained within the following publications addressing aspects of the grouping debate. Listings were selected on the basis that they are published journal articles and their titles indicate they are reports of primary research. Due to the selection criteria used, some articles that are research reports may have been omitted, and some articles that are in fact theoretical, commentary, or review articles may have been included.

Schooner, S. (Ed.). (1996). Hot topics series: Gifted students and inclusion: Exploring the tracking debate. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa. (1 to 8, 13, 14)
Kenny, D. A., Archambault, F. X., Jr., & Hallmark, B. W. (1995). The effects of group composition on gifted and non-gifted elementary students in cooperative learning groups (Research Monograph 95116). Storrs: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (9)
Kulik, J. A. (1992). An analysis of the research on ability grouping: Historical and contemporary perspectives (RBDM 9204). Storrs: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (10)
Reis, S. M., Gentry, M., & Park, S. (1995). Extending the pedagogy of gifted education to all students (Research Monograph 95118). Storrs: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (11)
Rogers, K. B. (1991). The relationship of grouping practices to the education of the gifted and talented learner (RBDMS 9102). Storrs: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (12)

* The number following the citation (1) indicates the source for that citation in the above reference list.


Balow, I. H., & Ruddell, A. K. (1963). The effects of three types of grouping on achievement. California Journal of Educational Research, 14, 108-117. (10)
Barthelmess, H. M., & Boyer, P. A. (1932). An evaluation of ability grouping. Journal of Educational Research, 26, 284-294. (10)
Bartell, N. P., & Reynolds, W. M. (1986). Depression and self esteem in academically gifted and nongifted children: A comparison study. Journal of School Psychology, 24, 55-61. (9)
Berk, L. E. (1986). Relationship of elementary school childrens’ private speech to behavioral accompaniment to task, attention, and task performance. Developmental Psychology, 20, 271-286. (8)
Berkun, M. M., Swanson, L. W., & Sawyer, D. M. (1966). An experiment on homogeneous grouping for reading in elementary classes. Journal of Educational Research, 59, 413-414. (10)
Biemiller, A. (1977/1978). Relationship between oral reading rates for letters, words and simple text and the development of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 13, 223-253. (8)
Biemiller, A., & Meichenbaum, D. (1992). The nature and nurture of student expertise. Educational Leadership, 50, 70-75. (8)
Billet, R. O. (1928). A controlled experiment to determine the advantages of homogeneous grouping. Educational Research Bulletin, 7, 190-196. (10)
Blaney, N. T., Stephan, S., Rosenfiels, D., Aronson, E., & Sikes, J. (1977). Independence in the classroom: A field study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(2), 121-128. (9)
Borg, W. R. (1965). Ability grouping in the public schools: A field study. Journal of Experimental Education, 34, 1-97. (8)
Braddock, J. H., II. (1990). Tracking the middle grades: National patterns of grouping for instruction. Phi Delta Kappan, 71(6), 445-449. (2)
Braddock, J. H., II., & Dawkins, M. P. (1993). Ability grouping, aspirations, and attainments: Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Journal of Negro Education, 62, 324-336. (3)
Breidenstine, A. G. (1937). The educational achievement of pupils in differentiated and undifferentiated groups. Journal of Experimental Education, 5, 91-135. (10)
Bremer, N. (1958). First grade achievement under different plans of grouping. Elementary English, 35, 324-326. (10)
Carson, R. M., & Thompson, J. M. (1964). The Joplin plan and traditional reading groups. Elementary School Journal, 65, 38-43. (10)
Cohen, R., Duncan, M., & Cohen, S. (1994). Classroom peer relations of children participating in a pullout enrichment program. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38(20), 33-37. (6)
Cross, T. L., Coleman, L. J., & Stewart, R. A. (1993). The social cognition of gifted adolescents: An exploration of the stigma of giftedness paradigm. Roeper Review, 16, 37-40. (6)
Daniels, J. C. (1961). The effects of streaming in the primary school: I. What teachers believe. II. Comparison of streamed and unstreamed schools. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 31, 69-78. (10)
Darling-Hammond, L. (1988). Teacher quality and educational equality. The College Board Review, 148, 16-23, 39-41. (5)
Davis, O. L., & Tracy N. H. (1963). Arithmetic achievement and instructional grouping. Arithmetic Teacher, 10, 12-17. (10)
Dean, R. S. (1977). Effects of self concept on learning with gifted children. Journal of Educational Research, 70, 315-318. (9)
De Vries, D., & Edwards, K. (1973). Learning games and student teams: Their effects on classroom process. American Educational Research Journal, 10, 307-318. (9)
Deutsch, M. (1949). An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition upon group processes. Human Relations, 2, 199-232.(9)
Dewar, J. A. (1963) Grouping for arithmetic instruction in sixth grade. Elementary School Journal, 63, 266-269. (9)(10)
Dreeben, R. (1987). Closing the divide: What teachers and administrators can do to help Black students reach their reading potential. American Educator, 11(2), 273-291. (5)
Dvorak, A., & Rae, J. J. (1929). Comparison of achievement of superior children in segregated and unsegregated first grade classes. Elementary School Journal, 24, 380-387. (10)
Dweck, C. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1046. (8)
Dyson, E. (1967). A study of ability grouping and the self concept. Journal of Educational Research, 60, 403-405. (10)
Ehrenberg, R. G., & Brewer, D. J. (1994). Do school and teacher characteristics matter? Evidence from high school and beyond. Economics of Education Review, 13, 1-17. (3)
Ehrenberg, R. G., Goldhaber,, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (1995, April). Do teachers’ race, gender, and ethnicity matter? Evidence from NELS: 88. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 547-561. (3)
Ekstrom, R. B. (1961). Experimental studies of homogeneous grouping: A critical review. School Review, 69, 216-22. (10)
Emerick, L. J. (1992). Academic underachievement among the gifted: Students’ perceptions of factors that reverse the pattern. Gifted Child Quarterly, 36, 140-146. (11)
Enzmann, A. M. (1963). A comparison of academic achievement of gifted students enrolled in regular and in separate curriculums. Gifted Child Quarterly, 7, 176-179. (10)
Evans, E. D., & Marken, D. (1982). Multiple outcome assessment of special class placement for gifted students: A comparative study. Gifted Child Quarterly, 26, 126-132. (10)
Feldhusen, D. H., Sayler, M. F., Nielsen, M. E., & Kolloff, P. B. (1990). Self concepts of gifted children in enrichment programs. Journal of Education of the Gifted, 13, 380-387. (9)
Ferguson, R. F. (1991). Paying for public education: New evidence on how and why money matters. Harvard Journal of Legislation, 28(2), 465-498. (5)
Finley, M. K. (1984). Teachers and tracking in a comprehensive high school. Sociology of Education, 57, 233-243. (5)(12)
Flanders, J. R. (1987). How much of the mathematics content in textbooks is new? Arithmetic Teacher, 35(1), 18-23. (13)
Fogelman, K., Essen, J., & Tibbenham, A. (1978). Ability grouping in secondary schools and attainment. Educational Studies, 4, 201-212. (10)
Gamoran, A. (1992). Access to excellence: Assignment to honors English classes in the transition from middle to high school. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14(3), 185-204. (5)
Gamoran, A. (1992, December). The variable effects of high school tracking. American Sociological Review, 812-828. (3)
Gamoran, A., & Mare, R. D. (1989). Secondary school tracking and educational inequality: Comprehension, reinforcement, or neutrality? American Journal of Sociology, 95(5), 1146-1183. (14)
Garet, M. S., & Delaney, B. (1988, April). Students, courses, and stratification. Sociology of Education, 61-77. (3)
Gray, H., & Hollingworth, L. S. (1931). The achievement of gifted children enrolled and not enrolled in special opportunity classes. Journal of Educational Research, 24, 255-261. (10)
Green, D. R., & Riley, H. W. (1963). Interclass grouping for reading instruction in the middle grades. The Journal of Experimental Education, 31, 273-278. (10)
Haller, E. J. (1985). Pupil race and elementary school ability grouping: Are teachers biased against Black children? American Educational Research Journal, 22, 465-483. (8)
Hallinan, M. T., & Sorenson, A. B. (1985). Ability grouping and student friendships. American Education Research Journal, 22, 485-499. (12)
Halliwell, J. W. (1963). A comparison of pupil achievement in graded and nongraded primary classrooms. Journal of Experimental Education, 32, 59-64. (10)
Hart, R. H. (1959). The effectiveness of an approach to the problem of varying abilities in teaching reading. Journal of Educational Research, 52, 228-231. (10)
Hanushek, E. (1989, May). The impact of differential expenditures on school performance. Educational Researcher, 45-62. (3)
Herr, W. A. (1937). Junior high school accelerants and their peers in senior high school. I. Scholastic achievement. The School Review, 45, 186-195. (10)
Hiebert, E. H., Colt, J. M., Catto, S. L., & Gury, E. C. (1992). Reading and writing of first grade students in a restructured chapter 1 program. American Education Research Journal, 29, 545-572. (8)
Holy, T. C., & Sutton, D. H. (1930). Ability grouping in the ninth grade. Educational Research Bulletin, 9, 419-422. (10)
Humphreys, B., Johnson, R., & Johnson, D. W. (1982). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning on students’ achievement in science class. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 19, 351-356. (9)
Hoffer, T. B. (1992, Fall). Middle school ability grouping and student achievement in science and mathematics. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 205-227. (3)(4)(5)
Ivey, J. D. (1965). Computation skills: Results of acceleration. The Arithmetic Teacher, 12, 39-42. (10)
Janos, P. M., Fung, H. C., & Robinson, N. M. (1985). Self-concept, self-esteem, and peer relations among gifted children who feel “different.” Gifted Child Quarterly, 29, 78-82. (9)
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1981). Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interethnic interaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 444-449. (9)
Johnson, R. T., & Johnson, D. W. (1983). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on social development. Exceptional Children, 49, 323-330. (9)
Johnson, R. T., Johnson, D. W., & Stanne, M. B. (1986). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on computer assisted instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 668-677. (9)
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., Tiffany, M., & Zaidman, B. (1983). Cross ethnic relationships: The impact of intergroup cooperation and intergroup competition. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 75-79. (9)
Johnson, D. W., Skon. L., & Johnson, R. T. (1990). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic conditions on children’s problem solving performance. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 83-93. (9)
Jones, D. M. (1948). An experiment in adaptation to individual differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 39, 247-272. (10)
Jones, J. C., Moore, J. W., & Van Devender, F. (1967). A comparison of pupil achievement after one and one half and three years in a nongraded program. Journal of Educational Research, 61, 75-77. (10)
Justman, J. (1954). Academic achievement of intellectually gifted accelerants and nonaccelerants in senior high school. School Review, 62, 142-150. (10)
Kanevsky, L. (1985). Computer-based math for gifted students: Comparison of cooperative and competitive strategies. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 8, 239-255. (9)
Karnes, M. B., McCoy, G., Zehrbach, R. R., Wollersheim, J. P., & Clarizio, H. F. (1963). The efficiency of two organizational plans for underachieving intellectually gifted children. Exceptional Children, 29, 438-446. (10)
Kaufman, J. E., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (1992). Education and employment of low-income Black youth in White suburbs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14(3), 229-240. (5)
Kerble, M. (1988). Students’ perspectives on tracking. The Clearing House, 61(5), 227-230. (14)
Kerckhoff, A. C. (1986). Effects of ability grouping in British secondary schools. American Sociological Review, 51, 842-858. (10)(12)
Klausmeier, H. J. (1963). Effects of accelerating bright older elementary pupils: A follow up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 54, 165-171. (10)
Klausmeier, H. J., & Ripple, R. E. (1963). Effects of accelerating bright older pupils from second to fourth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 93-100. (10)
Klausmeier, H. J., & Wiersma, W. (1964). Effects of condensing content in mathematics and science in the junior and senior high school. School Science and Mathematics, 64, 4-11. (10)
Kolloff, P. B., & Feldhusen, J. F. (1984). The effects of enrichment on self-concept and creative thinking. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28, 53-57. (9)
Kolloff, P. B., & Moore, A. D. (1989). Effects of summer programs on the self concept of gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 12, 268-276. (9)
Koontz, W. F. (1961). A study of achievement as a function of homogeneous grouping. Journal of Experimental Education, 30, 249-253. (10)
Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C-L. C. (1984). Effects of accelerated instruction on students. Review of Educational Research, 54, 409-425. (12)
Lovell, J. T. (1960). Bay High School experiment. Educational Leadership, 17, 383-387. (10)
Lucker, G. W., Rosenfield, D., Sikes, J., & Aronson, E. (1976). Performance in the interdependent classroom: A field study. American Educational Research Journal, 13, 115-123. (9)
LuPone, L. J. (1961). A comparison of provisionally certified and permanently certified elementary school teachers in selected school districts in New York State. Journal of Educational Research, 55, 53-63. (5)
Madden N., & Slavin, R. (1983). Effects of cooperative learning on the social acceptance of mainstreamed academically handicapped children. Journal of Special Education, 17, 171-183. (9)
Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., Karweit, J. L., Dolan, L. J., & Wasik, B. A. (1993). Success for all: Longitudinal effects of a restructuring program for inner-city schools. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 123-148. (8)
Mervasch, Z. R. (1991). Learning mathematics in different mastery environments. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 225-231. (9)
Miller, W. S., & Otto, H. J. (1930). Analysis of experimental studies in homogeneous grouping. Journal of Educational Research, 21, 950-102. (10)
Moore, E. G., & Smith, A. W. (1985). Mathematics aptitude: Effects of coursework, household language, and ethnic differences. Urban Education, 20, 273-294. (5)
Morgan, E. F., Jr., & Stucker, G. R. (1960). The Joplin Plan of reading vs. a traditional method. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 69-73. (10)
Oakes, J. (1983). Limiting opportunity: Student race and curricular differences in secondary vocational education. American Journal of Education, 91(3), 328-355. (5)
Olenchak, F. R. (1995). Effects of enrichment on gifted/learning-disabled gifted students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 18(4), 385-399. (11)
Olenchak, F. R., & Renzulli, J. S. (1989). The effectiveness of the schoolwide enrichment model on selected aspects of elementary school change. Gifted Child Quarterly, 33, 36-46. (11)
Olszewski, P., Kulieke, M. J., & Willis, G. B. (1987). Changes in the self perception of gifted students who participate in rigorous academic programs. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 10, 287-303. (9)
Peterson, P. (1988). Teachers’ and students’ cognitional knowledge for classroom teaching and learning. Educational Researcher, 17(5), 5-14. (8)
Pinnell, G. S. (1989). Reading Recovery: Helping at-risk children learn to read. Elementary School Journal, 90, 161-184.(8)
Purcell, J. H. (1995). Gifted education at the cross roads: The program status study. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(2), 57-65. (1)
Rees, D. I., Argys, L. M., & Brewer, D. J. (1996). Tracking in the United States: Descriptive evidence from NELS. Economics of Education Review, 15.
Rosenbaum, J. E. (1980m, April). Track misperceptions and frustrated college plans: An analysis of the effects of tracks and track perceptions in the National Longitudinal Study. Sociology of Education, 74-88. (3)(4)
Rothrock, D. G. (1961). Heterogeneous, homogeneous or individualized approach to reading. Elementary English, 38, 233-235. (10)
Rusch, R. R., & Clark, R. M. (1963). Four years in three: An evaluation. Elementary School Journal, 63, 281-285 (10)
Schneider, B. H., Clegg, M. R., Byrne, B. M., & Crombie, G. (1989). Social relations of gifted children as a function of age and school program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 48-56. (9)
Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations. Review of Educational Research, 50, 241-271. (9)
Sharan, S., Ackerman, Z., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. (1980). Academic achievement of elementary school children in small-group versus whole-class instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 48, 125-129. (9)
Slavin, R. E. (1978). Student teams and comparison among equals: Effects on academic performance and student attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 532-538. (9)
Slavin, R. E., & Karweit, N. (1981). Cognitive and affective outcomes of an intensive student team learning experience. Journal of Experimental Education, 50, 29-35. (9)
Slavin, R. E., Leavy, M., & Madden, N. (1984). Combining cooperative learning and individualized instruction: Effects on students mathematics achievement, attitudes, and behaviors. Elementary School Journal, 84, 409-422. (9)
Smith. K., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1982). The effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction on the achievement of handicapped, regular, and gifted students. Journal of Social Psychology, 116, 277-283. (9)(12)
Sorenson, A. B., & Hallinan, M. T. (1986). Effects of ability grouping on growth in academic achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 519-542. (12)
Stevens, R. J., Slavin, R. E., & Farnish, A. M. (1991). The effects of cooperative learning and direct instruction in reading comprehension strategies and main idea identification. Journal of Educational psychology, 83, 8-16. (9)
Taylor, B. M., & Frye, B. J. (1988). Pretesting: Minimizing time spent on skill work for intermediate readers. The Reading Teacher, 42(2), 10-103. (13)
Thompson, G. W. (1974). The effects of ability grouping upon achievement in eleventh grade American history. Journal of Experimental Education, 42, 76-79. (10)
Tobias, S. (1989, September). Tracked to fail. Psychology Today, 54-60. (14)
Unzicker, S. P. (1932). A study of acceleration in the junior high school. The School Review, 40, 346-356. (10)
Usiskin, Z. (1987). Why elementary algebra can, should, and must be an eighth grade course for average students. Mathematics Teacher, 80(6), 428-438. (13)
Wallen, N. E., & Vowles, R. O. (1960). The effect of intraclass grouping on arithmetic achievement in the sixth grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 159-163. (9)(10)
Webb, N. M. (1982). Group composition, group interaction, and achievement in cooperative small groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 475-484. (9)
Webb, N. M. ( 1984). Stability of small group interaction and achievement over time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 211-224. (9)
Worlton, J. T. (1928). The effect of homogeneous classification on the scholastic achievement of bright pupils. Elementary School Journal, 28, 336-345. (10)
Zweibelson, I., Bahnmuller, M., & Lyman, L. (1965). Team teaching and flexible grouping in the junior high school social studies. The Journal of Experimental Education, 34, 20-32. (10)